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Pashtun muslims

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Pashtun Muslims - Inhaltsverzeichnis

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Pashtuns believe that the problems in their society can be solved by everyone following Islam more strictly or becoming better Muslims. Problems mark the lives of Pashtun society as a whole and as well as smaller family groups.

Outside forces such as poverty, floods, earthquakes, and armies have destroyed much of their land. Pashtuns have also been known to cause destruction among their own tribes and even families through a practice called badal, or revenge.

Pashtuns feel a deep need to avenge every wrong. This can escalate from an angry fist fight to murder over land rights. Whole families can be wiped out before a decision for peace is finally reached by the community.

Is it starting to sound like Pashtuns are far from God, even his enemies? Jesus died to make the Pashtuns his friends, his brothers, to join himself to them as their Priest and King and God.

God is beginning to work. There are somewhere between and Pashtun believers known today. Some are still isolated and some are meeting as churches and some are even taking the gospel to other Pashtuns.

Yet, as you can see there is much work to be done. Only a tiny fraction of Pashtuns have heard the gospel, and a smaller fraction of those have put their faith in Jesus.

We believe that God works through our prayers. Sign up to pray for Pashtuns every week in hope of worshipping with many of them in heaven someday.

Email Address. They hold mountains and defiles and possess considerable strength, and are mostly highwaymen. Their principle mountain is called Kuh Sulayman.

It is told that the prophet Sulayman Solomon , Sulemani ascended this mountain and having looked out over India, which was then covered with darkness, returned without entering it.

One historical account connects the native Pakhtuns of Pakistan to a possible Ancient Egyptian past but this lacks supporting evidence.

Additionally, although this too is unsubstantiated, some Afghan historians have maintained that Pashtuns are linked to the ancient Israelites. Mohan Lal quoted Mountstuart Elphinstone who wrote:.

Some Pashtun tribes claim descent from Arabs , including some claiming to be Sayyids descendants of Muhammad. Those who speak a dialect of Pashto in the Kandahar region refer to themselves as Pashtuns, while those who speak a Peshawari dialect call themselves Pukhtuns.

These native people compose the core of ethnic Pashtuns who are found in southeastern Afghanistan and western Pakistan.

The Pashtuns have oral and written accounts of their family tree. The elders transfer the knowledge to the younger generation. Lineage is considered very important and is a vital consideration in marital business.

Some anthropologists lend credence to the oral traditions of the Pashtun tribes themselves. For example, according to the Encyclopaedia of Islam , the theory of Pashtun descent from Israelites is traced to Nimat Allah al-Harawi , who compiled a history for Khan-e-Jehan Lodhi in the reign of Mughal Emperor Jehangir in the 17th century.

There have been many legends over the centuries of descent from the Ten Lost Tribes after groups converted to Christianity and Islam.

Hence the tribal name Yusufzai in Pashto translates to the "son of Joseph". A similar story is told by many historians, including the 14th century Ibn Battuta and 16th century Ferishta.

One conflicting issue in the belief that the Pashtuns descend from the Israelites is that the Ten Lost Tribes were exiled by the ruler of Assyria , while Maghzan-e-Afghani says they were permitted by the ruler to go east to Afghanistan.

This inconsistency can be explained by the fact that Persia acquired the lands of the ancient Assyrian Empire when it conquered the Empire of the Medes and Chaldean Babylonia , which had conquered Assyria decades earlier.

But no ancient author mentions such a transfer of Israelites further east, or no ancient extra-Biblical texts refer to the Ten Lost Tribes at all.

Their modern past stretches back to the Delhi Sultanate , particularly the Hotak dynasty and the Durrani Empire. The Hotaks were Ghilji tribesmen who rebelled against the Safavids and seized control over much of Persia from to He created the last Afghan empire that covered most of what is now Afghanistan, Pakistan, Kashmir , Indian Punjab , as well as the Kohistan and Khorasan provinces of Iran.

Specifically, the Mohamedzai subclan held Afghanistan's monarchy from around to the end of Zahir Shah 's reign in The Pashtuns in Afghanistan resisted British designs upon their territory and kept the Russians at bay during the so-called Great Game.

By playing the two super powers against each other, Afghanistan remained an independent sovereign state and maintained some autonomy see the Siege of Malakand.

But during the reign of Abdur Rahman Khan — , Pashtun regions were politically divided by the Durand Line , and what is today western Pakistan was claimed by British in In the 20th century, many politically active Pashtun leaders living under British rule of undivided India supported Indian independence , including Ashfaqulla Khan , [94] [95] Abdul Samad Khan Achakzai , Ajmal Khattak , Bacha Khan and his son Wali Khan both members of the Khudai Khidmatgar , and were inspired by Mohandas Gandhi 's non-violent method of resistance.

The Pashtuns of Afghanistan attained complete independence from British political intervention during the reign of Amanullah Khan , following the Third Anglo-Afghan War.

By the s a popular call for Pashtunistan began to be heard in Afghanistan and the new state of Pakistan. This led to bad relations between the two nations.

The Afghan monarchy ended when President Daoud Khan seized control of Afghanistan from his cousin Zahir Shah in , which opened doors for a proxy war by neighbors and the rise of Marxism.

In April , Daoud Khan was assassinated along with his family and relatives. Mujahideen commanders began being recruited in neighboring Pakistan for a guerrilla warfare against the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.

In , the Soviet Union invaded its southern neighbor Afghanistan in order to defeat a rising insurgency.

In the meantime, millions of Pashtuns fled their native land to live among other Afghan diaspora in Pakistan and Iran , and from there tens of thousands proceeded to North America, the European Union , the Middle East, Australia and other parts of the world.

In the late s, Pashtuns became known for being the primary ethnic group comprised by the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan Taliban regime.

The Taliban regime was ousted in late during the US-led War in Afghanistan and replaced with the Karzai administration.

The list of current governors of Afghanistan , as well as the parliamentarians in the House of the People and House of Elders , include large percentage of Pashtuns.

Many of the non-Pashtun groups in Afghanistan have adopted the Pashtun culture and use Pashto as a second language.

For example, many leaders of non-Pashtun ethnic groups in Afghanistan practice Pashtunwali to some degree and are fluent in Pashto language.

Many Pashtuns of Pakistan and India have adopted non-Pashtun cultures, and learned other languages such as Urdu , Punjabi , and Hindko.

Others became famous in sports e. In addition, one of India's former presidents, Zakir Hussain , belonged to the Afridi tribe.

According to a study:. This genetic affinity and gene flow suggests interactions that could have existed since at least the establishment of the region's first civilizations at the Indus Valley and the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex.

The abstract states: "our results that all current Afghans largely share a heritage derived from a common unstructured ancestral population that could have emerged during the Neolithic revolution and the formation of the first farming communities.

Our results also indicate that inter-Afghan differentiation started during the Bronze Age, probably driven by the formation of the first civilizations in the region.

Among historians, anthropologists, and the Pashtuns themselves, there is some debate as to who exactly qualifies as a Pashtun.

The most prominent views are:. These three definitions may be described as the ethno-linguistic definition, the religious-cultural definition and the patrilineal definition, respectively.

The ethno-linguistic definition is the most prominent and accepted view as to who is and is not a Pashtun. Thus, tribes that speak disparate yet mutually intelligible dialects of Pashto acknowledge each other as ethnic Pashtuns and even subscribe to certain dialects as "proper", such as the Pukhto spoken by the Yusufzai , Gigyani tribe , Ghilji and other tribes in Eastern Afghanistan and the Pashto spoken by the Kakar , Wazir , Khilji and Durranis in Southern Afghanistan.

These criteria tend to be used by most Pashtuns in Afghanistan and Pakistan. The religious and cultural definition requires Pashtuns to be Muslim and adhere to Pashtunwali codes.

Pashtun intellectuals and academics, however, tend to be more flexible and sometimes define who is Pashtun based on other criteria.

Pashtun society is not homogenous by religion: the overwhelming majority of them are Sunni , with a tiny Shia community the Turi and partially the Bangash tribe in the Kurram and Orakzai agencies of FATA, Pakistan.

The patrilineal definition is based on an important orthodox law of Pashtunwali which mainly requires that only those who have a Pashtun father are Pashtun.

This law has maintained the tradition of exclusively patriarchal tribal lineage. This definition places less emphasis on what language one speaks, such as Pashto, Dari , Hindko , Urdu , Hindi or English.

These communities are often considered overlapping groups or are simply assigned to the ethno-linguistic group that corresponds to their geographic location and mother tongue.

The Niazi is one of these groups. Claimants of Pashtun heritage in South Asia have mixed with local Muslim populations and are referred to as Pathan, the Hindustani form of Pashtun.

The Pathans in India have lost both the language and presumably many of the ways of their ancestors, but trace their fathers' ethnic heritage to the Pashtun tribes.

Some Indians claim descent from Pashtun soldiers who settled in India by marrying local women during the Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent.

Notably, the Rohillas , after their defeat by the British, are known to have settled in parts of North India and intermarried with local ethnic groups.

They are believed to have been bilingual in Pashto and Urdu until the midth century. Some Urdu-speaking Muhajir people of India claiming descent from Pashtuns began moving to Pakistan in Many Pathans chose to live in the Republic of India after the partition of India and Khan Mohammad Atif, a professor at the University of Lucknow , estimates that "The population of Pathans in India is twice their population in Afghanistan".

During the 19th century, when the British were accepting peasants from British India as indentured servants to work in the Caribbean , South Africa and other far away places, Rohillas who had lost their empire were unemployed and restless were sent to places as far as Trinidad , Surinam , Guyana, and Fiji , to work with other Indians on the sugarcane fields and perform manual labour.

Some of them assimilated with the other South Asian Muslim nationalities to form a common Indian Muslim community in tandem with the larger Indian community, losing their distinctive heritage.

Their descendants mostly speak English and other local languages. Some Pashtuns travelled to as far away as Australia during the same era.

Pashtun culture is mostly based on Pashtunwali and the usage of the Pashto language. Pashtun culture is a unique blend of native customs with some influences from South and Western Asia.

Some also celebrate Nouruz , which is the Persian new year dating to pre-Islamic period. Pashtunwali or Pakhtunwali refers to an ancient self-governing tribal system that regulates nearly all aspects of Pashtun life ranging from community to personal level.

One of the better known tenets is Melmastia , hospitality and asylum to all guests seeking help. Perceived injustice calls for Badal , swift revenge.

Many aspects promote peaceful co-existence, such as Nanawati , the humble admission of guilt for a wrong committed, which should result in automatic forgiveness from the wronged party.

These and other basic precepts of Pashtunwali continue to be followed by many Pashtuns, especially in rural areas.

Another prominent Pashtun institution is the loya jirga or 'grand council' of elected elders. The language has ancient origins and bears similarities to extinct languages such as Avestan and Bactrian.

Modern borrowings come primarily from the English language. Fluency in Pashto is often the main determinant of group acceptance as to who is considered a Pashtun.

Pashtun nationalism emerged following the rise of Pashto poetry that linked language and ethnic identity. Pashto has national status in Afghanistan and regional status in neighboring Pakistan.

In addition to their native tongue, many Pashtuns are fluent in Urdu, Dari , and English. Throughout their history, poets, prophets, kings and warriors have been among the most revered members of Pashtun society.

Early written records of Pashto began to appear around the 16th century. The earliest describes Sheikh Mali's conquest of Swat. Pashtun scholars such as Abdul Hai Habibi and others believe that the earliest Pashto work dates back to Amir Kror Suri , and they use the writings found in Pata Khazana as proof.

The advent of poetry helped transition Pashto to the modern period. Pashto literature gained significant prominence in the 20th century, with poetry by Ameer Hamza Shinwari who developed Pashto Ghazals.

Recently, Pashto literature has received increased patronage, but many Pashtuns continue to rely on oral tradition due to relatively low literacy rates and education.

Pashtun society is also marked by some matriarchal tendencies. Pashto media has expanded in the last decade, with a number of Pashto TV channels becoming available.

Pashtuns around the world, particularly those in Arab countries, watch these for entertainment purposes and to get latest news about their native areas.

Producers based in Peshawar have created Pashto-language films since the s. Pashtun performers remain avid participants in various physical forms of expression including dance, sword fighting, and other physical feats.

Perhaps the most common form of artistic expression can be seen in the various forms of Pashtun dances. One of the most prominent dances is Attan , which has ancient roots.

A rigorous exercise, Attan is performed as musicians play various native instruments including the dhol drums , tablas percussions , rubab a bowed string instrument , and toola wooden flute.

With a rapid circular motion, dancers perform until no one is left dancing, similar to Sufi whirling dervishes. Numerous other dances are affiliated with various tribes notably from Pakistan including the Khattak Wal Atanrh eponymously named after the Khattak tribe , Mahsood Wal Atanrh which, in modern times, involves the juggling of loaded rifles , and Waziro Atanrh among others.

A sub-type of the Khattak Wal Atanrh known as the Braghoni involves the use of up to three swords and requires great skill. Young women and girls often entertain at weddings with the Tumbal Dayereh which is an instrument.

The Afghanistan national cricket team , which is has many Pashtun players, was formed in the early s. One of the most popular sports among Pashtuns is cricket , which was introduced to South Asia during the early 18th century with the arrival of the British.

Football soccer is also one of the most popular sports among Pashtuns. The Former captain and now the current assistant coach of Pakistan national football team , Muhammad Essa , is an ethnic Pashtun.

Other sports popular among Pashtuns may include polo , field hockey , volleyball , handball , basketball , golf , track and field , bodybuilding , weightlifting , wrestling pehlwani , kayaking , horse racing , martial arts , boxing , skateboarding , bowling and chess.

In Afghanistan, the Pashtuns still practice the sport of Buzkashi. The horse-mounted players attempt to place a Goat or Calf carcass in a goal circle.

Jahangir Khan and Jansher Khan became professional squash players. Although now retired, they are engaged in promoting the sport through the Pakistan Squash Federation.

Maria Toorpakai Wazir is the first female Pashtun squash player. In recent decades Hayatullah Khan Durrani , Pride of Performance legendary caver from Quetta , has been promoting mountaineering , rock climbing and Caving in Balochistan, Pakistan.

Snooker and billiards are played by young Pashtun men, mainly in urban areas where snooker clubs are found. Several prominent international recognized snooker players are from the Pashtun area, including Saleh Mohammed.

Although traditionally very less involved in sports than boys, Pashtun girls sometimes play volleyball, basketball, football , and cricket , especially in urban areas.

Makha is a traditional archery sport in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, played with a long arrow gheshai having a saucer shaped metallic plate at its distal end, and a long bow.

The overwhelming majority of Pashtuns follow Sunni Islam , belonging to the Hanafi school of thought. Studies conducted among the Ghilji reveal strong links between tribal affiliation and membership in the larger ummah Islamic community.

Afghan historians believe that most Pashtuns are descendants of Qais Abdur Rashid , who is purported to have been an early convert to Islam and thus bequeathed the faith to the early Pashtun population.

He purportedly had four children: Sarban, Batan, Ghourghusht and Karlan. Before the Islamization of their territory , the Pashtuns likely followed various religions.

Some may have been Buddhists and Hindus , while others Zoroastians , worshippers of the sun , or worshippers of Nana , with some adhering to Judaism and "local natural religions".

A legacy of Sufi activity may be found in some Pashtun regions, especially in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa area, as evident in songs and dances.

Although his ethnicity is disputed by some, he is widely accepted in the Afghanistan-Pakistan region as well as in the Arab world, as a Pashtun from the Kunar Province of Afghanistan.

Like other non Arabic-speaking Muslims, many Pashtuns are able to read the Quran but not understand the Arabic language implicit in the holy text itself.

Translations, especially in English, are scarcely far and in between understood or distributed. This paradox has contributed to the spread of different versions of religious practices and Wahabism , as well as political Islamism including movements such as the Taliban having a key presence in Pashtun society.

In order to counter radicalisation and fundamentalism, the United States began spreading its influence in Pashtun areas.

Lastly, little information is available on non-Muslim as there is limited data regarding irreligious groups and minorities, especially since many of the Hindu and Sikh Pashtuns migrated from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa after the partition of India and later, after the rise of the Taliban.

A small Pashtun Hindu community, known as the Sheen Khalai meaning 'blue skinned' referring to the color of Pashtun women's facial tattoos , migrated to Unniara, Rajasthan , India after partition.

Today, they continue to speak Pashto and celebrate Pashtun culture through the Attan dance. There is a small minority of Pashtun Christians in Pakistan.

Due to the ongoing insurgency in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa , like many other tribal Pashtuns, some Pashtun Sikhs were internally displaced from their ancestral villages to settle in cities like Peshawar and Nankana Sahib.

In Pashtun society there are three levels of women's leadership and legislative authority: the national level, the village level, and the family level.

Nazo Anaa was a prominent 17th century Pashto poet and an educated Pashtun woman who eventually became the "Mother of Afghan Nationalism" after gaining authority through her poetry and upholding of the Pashtunwali code.

She used the Pashtunwali law to unite the Pashtun tribes against their Persian enemies. Her cause was picked up in the early 18th century by Zarghona Anaa, the mother of Ahmad Shah Durrani.

The lives of Pashtun women vary from those who reside in conservative rural areas, such as the tribal belt , to those found in relatively freer urban centres.

Her duties may include witnessing women's ceremonies, mobilising women to practice religious festivals, preparing the female dead for burial, and performing services for deceased women.

She also arranges marriages for her own family and arbitrates conflicts for men and women. In Afghanistan, the decades of war and the rise of the Taliban caused considerable hardship among Pashtun women, as many of their rights were curtailed by a rigid interpretation of Islamic law.

The difficult lives of Afghan female refugees gained considerable notoriety with the iconic image Afghan Girl Sharbat Gula depicted on the June cover of National Geographic magazine.

Modern social reform for Pashtun women began in the early 20th century, when Queen Soraya Tarzi of Afghanistan made rapid reforms to improve women's lives and their position in the family.

She was the only woman to appear on the list of rulers in Afghanistan. Credited with having been one of the first and most powerful Afghan and Muslim female activists.

Her advocacy of social reforms for women led to a protest and contributed to the ultimate demise of King Amanullah 's reign in Bollywood blockbusters of s and s starred Parveen Babi , who hailed from the lineage of Gujarat's historical Pathan community: the royal Babi Dynasty.

Other Indian actresses and models, such as Zarine Khan , continue to work in the industry. Pashtun women these days vary from the traditional housewives who live in seclusion to urban workers, some of whom seek or have attained parity with men.

According to a book, "a powerful ethic of forbearance severely limits the ability of traditional Pashtun women to mitigate the suffering they acknowledge in their lives.

Despite obstacles, many Pashtun women have begun a process of slow change. A rich oral tradition and resurgence of poetry has inspired many Pashtun women seeking to learn to read and write.

Some Pashtun women have attained political office in Pakistan. In Afghanistan, following recent elections, the proportion of female political representatives is one of the highest in the world.

Pashtun women often have their legal rights curtailed in favour of their husbands or male relatives. For example, though women are officially allowed to vote in Afghanistan and Pakistan, some have been kept away from ballot boxes by males.

Human rights organisations continue to struggle for greater women's rights, such as the Afghan Women's Network and the Aurat Foundation in Pakistan which aims to protect women from domestic violence.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Pathan disambiguation. Ethnic group native to South and Central Asia.

Further information: Pashtunistan and Durand Line. Main article: Pashtun tribes. Main article: Theories of Pashtun origin. Further information: Afghan ethnonym.

Identifying key tribal elders and other local powerbrokers who share the West's revulsion towards such widespread paedophilia is the first step in achieving lasting progress.

As is true with women's rights, understanding Afghanistan's complex social terrain and bridging its cultural differences is necessary to safeguard the rights of adolescent boys.

The Afghan government's acknowledgement of bacha bazi and subsequent outreach into rural Pashtun communities, where the legitimacy of the government is often eclipsed by the power of warlords and tribal elders, will also be critical.

The most important breakthrough, of course, will come when the Afghan government, police, and military rid themselves of all pedophiles.

If the central government can ensure its representatives at the local level will cease their engagement in bacha bazi, the social norms are bound to change as well.

Eliminating this truly damaging practice will finally occur when a paedophile-free Afghan government is able to more closely connect the country's urban centers to its rural countryside.

Only then will a progressive social code be established. And if this evolved social code can incorporate the tenets of Islam with social justice and effectively marginalize the archaic and abusive aspects of Pashtun and Tajik warlord culture, there is hope for Afghanistan yet.

Chris Mondloch served as an analyst for the U. Marine Corps for five years and directed intelligence production for the Corps' Economic Political Intelligence Cell in Helmand province in Already have an account?

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